Electric Vehicles are gaining momentum world-wide whether it be two-wheelers, three-wheelers, cars and commercial trucks. It is the future of transportation. There are many companies already in the race, producing different models of Electric Vehicles (EVs).
Let us understand the basics of EVs and the different technologies available now. An EV basically is powered by Electricity and runs with the help of Motors replacing the traditional combustion engines. The battery powers the motors and let everything else remain as it is in a conventional vehicle, it becomes an Electric Vehicle. But it is not just simple as this.
Types and Technologies
There are different technologies available in conventional EVs. There are two basic types of EV’s All-Electric Vehicles (AEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs).
The AEVs include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Both charge their batteries from electrical grid. They are also charged in part by Regenerative Braking. Regenerative Braking generates electricity from some of the energy normally lost during braking.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles are powered by Hydrogen and are more efficient than the conventional internal combustion engines. They do not have the tailpipe emissions but emit only Water Vapour and warm Air. They also use a propulsion system similar to the EVs and can fuel in less than 4 minutes and provide a range of over 300 miles.
The AEVs run only on electricity and most of them have ranges between 80 and 100 miles. When the battery is discharged, it can take 30 minutes (fast charging) to almost a full day (with level 1 charging) to recharge completely.
The PHEVs use batteries to power the electric motor. They can be plugged into an electric grid for recharging the batteries. They also use petroleum or alternate fuel based internal combustion engines. Some of the PHEVs are also called as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs)